The haunting irony is that anyone who read and reflected up Makiya's 1989 book, The Republic of Fear, understood that building a participant, pluralistic political system would be a generational challenge not an overnight miracle. When I reviewed the book prior to the 1990-1991 war this is what I wrote (the quote was used a blurb on the cover of the paperback version).
"Brilliant. This pithy, rightly informed and important book explains why and how Iraq's deeply entrenched republic of fear will survive, even though its author fervently wishes otherwise."
Iraq - Kanan Makiya - Saddam Hussein - New York Times